Funnels and food storage

Earlier this year Avraham Faust published the article Funnels as indicators of storage activities in the Iron II Southern Levant (Oxford Journal of Archaeology 38(1):80-104). Based on observations at Tel ‘Eton, he suggested that larger funnels with a diameter of 23 cm and more and a volume between 2.75 and 4.0 litres were used with dry products. Funnels with a diameter between 18 to 20 cm and a volume between 1.2 to 2.6 litres were probably used with liquids.

He looks at other funnels from recent excavations and suggests that they support his conclusions. One of these funnels has been excavated from Tell Halif. This is a smaller funnel, and though not quite as narrow as some others, not very wide. This was found together with a strainer and a collection of storage jars. Residue from some of these jars was tested and found to contain tartaric acid associated with wine. The conclusion that this narrow funnel was used with liquids is therefore quite strong.

Funnel found in the F7 house at Tell Halif. F7.47D#2. Image: Paul F. Jacobs

However, overall only very few funnels have been found in excavations in Israel. It seems that at Tel ‘Eton only two have been found, both from Building 101. Avi Faust has been able to find 31 funnels that have been reported in publications. Many of them are not well-preserved or well-described and have not come from good contexts. They are quite exceptional. Therefore, they can only tell us so much about storage. Nevertheless, they are an important indicator that can add to our knowledge of household food storage and a better understanding of the use of space in houses.

Avi Faust also suggests that areas in which dry goods were stored only contained a few storage vessels and some additional non-storage vessels; areas in which liquids were stored contained many storage vessels and very few non-storage vessels except for juglets. He suggests that liquids were stored almost solely in ceramic containers, while dry goods were often stored in sacks.

In my investigation of household food storage I did not come across evidence for storage in sacks, though they were undoubtedly used. I did come across some evidence for storage of grain in bulk. I therefore only considered ceramic storage vessels and bulk storage facilities. However, the data I used may be re-examined with Avi Faust’s suggestion.

I noted in my investigation that houses from Iron Age II (1000 – 586 BCE) had a lower household storage capacity than houses from Iron Age I (1200 – 1000 BCE). I suggested that this may be due to centrally administered storage: during the Iron Age II many storehouses were found that were centrally administered. Much of the food could have been kept in these storehouses.

Another interpretation may be that during the Iron Age I dry goods were kept in ceramic containers and grain pits, while in the Iron Age II dry goods were often kept in sacks and only sometimes in ceramic containers.

I reckon that my investigation of household food storage is only a start and there is a lot more to learn about this topic, which might allow us to learn more about the lives of people in Ancient Israel and Judah.

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